مروری برمطالعات انجام شده در خصوص اثرات بالینی مواد روانگردان جدید و مکانیسم اثر آنها (کاتینون‌های سنتزی، کانابینوئیدهای سنتزی و فن اتیل آمین ها)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه صنایع و تجهیزات نظامی،پژوهشکده مدیریت فنّاوری، پژوهشگاه علوم انتظامی و مطالعات اجتماعی ناجا، تهران، ایران

چکیده

استفاده از مواد روانگردان جدید رو به افزایش است و تا کنون بیش از 800 نوع ماده روانگردان جدید به سازمان ملل گزارش شده است. به هر حال اطلاعات محدود در مورد اثرات سم شناسی و نورو فارماکولوژی این مواد، مانع از ارزیابی خطر این مواد می‌شود. این مقاله گزارش های ارائه شده در مقالات در خصوص اثرات مواد روانگردان جدید و مکانیسم اثر آنها را مرور می-کند. کانابینوئیدهای سنتزی، فنتیل آمین‌ها و کاتینون‌های سنتزی سه گروه از مواد روانگردان جدید هستند که اخیراً رشد و نفوذ قابل توجهی را در بازار داشته اند. کانابینوئیدهای سنتزی فعال کننده های قوی گیرنده های کانابینوئیدی هستند و اغلب به عنوان ادویه فروخته می‌شوند و مصرف آنها با عوارض نامطلوب برای سلامتی و حتی مرگ همراه است. کاتینون‌های سنتزی اثرات محرک و توهم زایی دارند و شامل نمک حمام و نوع جدید آن ،فلاکا، که حاوی آلفا پیرولیدینووالروفنون است می‌باشد. گروه فنتیل آمین‌ها شامل 4-فلوروآمفتامین (4-FA)، بنزوفوران‌ها (5-APB, 6-APB) و سری2C دارای اثرات انتاکتوژنیک و توهم زایی هستند. مکانیسم عمل اولیه انواع مواد روانگردان جدید شامل بازداری و/یا باز جذب معکوس انتقال دهنده های مونو آمین (کاتینون های سنتزی و فنتیل آمینهای غیر توهم زا)، و فعالسازی گیرنده های 5-HT2 (فنتیل آمین‌های توهم زا) و فعالسازی گیرنده‌های کانابینوئیدی (کانابینوئیدهای سنتزی)می‌باشد.

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